Parodontics is the part of dentistry that specializes in the diagnosis, treatment and maintenance of the periodontitis, that is the tissues of the tooth support: gum, bone tissue, cementum and alveolar ligament.
Periodontitis is a bacterial disease that occurs most often when immune mechanisms are weakened. It usually begins with inflammation of the gum (gingivitis) that gradually spreads to the bone tissue, forming infected “pockets” between the gum and the tooth.
The first symptoms are bleeding gums, occurring spontaneously or when brushing teeth. When the disease progresses, the following symptoms may appear as:
- redness and swelling of the gums;
- a retraction of the gums and the formation of pockets (empty spaces) between the teeth and the gum;
- an abscess of the gum with pus;
- pain during chewing;
- teeth moving and loosening;
- persistent bad breath.
The people most at risk of periodontitis are:
- Old people ;
- Pregnant or menopausal women (due to hormonal changes);
- People with type 2 diabetes, who are also more likely to suffer from severe or rapidly developing form of periodontitis;
- People with leukemia, hyperthyroidism.
Factors that increase the risk of periodontitis (because they weaken the immune system):
- Poor nutrition and vitamin C deficiencies
- The use of drugs or alcohol increases the severity of periodontal disease.
- Taking oral contraceptives (hormonal changes)
- Taking certain medications (psychotropic, antihypertensive, antihistamines) that reduce the production of saliva and thus increase the risk of oral infection.
- Prevention of periodontal diseases
- Periodontitis often develops insidiously, and symptoms usually appear only late.
It can be prevented by strict oral hygiene and regular periodontal and dental examinations, allowing for timely intervention in cases of gingivitis.
Hygiene and surveillance measures are essential to detect periodontitis as early as possible:
- Brushing teeth twice a day, with a soft-bristled toothbrush (which must be changed every 2 months). The hygienist can explain the gesture of brushing which should not aggravate the lesions of the gums, but must still allow an effective cleaning.
- The passage of the dental thread (silk) before brushing, at least once a day.
- An annual dental examination, in which the dentist examines the health of the gums and, where appropriate, the gap between the gums and teeth to ensure that no pockets are formed.
- Regular descaling.
- X-ray of the teeth every 2 years to detect abnormal bone loss.
- It is recommended to quit limit the consumption of alcohol and sugar
Pregnant women: there is an increased risk of periodontitis during pregnancy, pregnant women must have a dental follow-up during and after pregnancy.
Orthodontic treatment: During orthodontic treatment, monitoring should be increased and a full examination should be performed every 6 months.